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- Ozone - Other Trace Gases - Adjustment Time - Summary Greenhouse Forcing - Forcing Factors - GWPs - ΔF-ΔC Relationships - 1765 to 1990 - Ozone Aerosols - Aerosols - Radiative Forcing - Direct - Indirect - Total Forcing Climate Variations - Surface Temperature - Precipitation - Other Variations - 3.3.6.Pollen Analysis Pollen grains and spores form the basis of another important aspect of palaeoclimate reconstruction, generally referred to as pollen analysis, or palynology.Pollen analysis is a scientific method that can reveal evidence of past ecological and climate changes: it combines the principles of stratigraphy with observations of actual (modern) pollen-vegetation relationships in order to reconstruct the terrestrial vegetation of the past.).Its scientific scope is broad since it encompasses knowledge from many disciplines including botany, geology, ecology, climatology and archeology.We performed pollen analysis and accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) radiocarbon dating on cored sediments (KS0412-3) from Kashibaru Marsh, located in the western part of the Sefuri Mountains in northern Kyushu, southwestern Japan, to investigate environmental change around the marsh.

grazing, agriculture, woodland management) by using microfossils (pollen grains and spores) that have been preserved in sediments.Sediment samples (usually 1.0 plastic centrifuge tubes and are treated sequentially, as shown in the flow chart below, with centrifuging and water rinses between each of the steps to clear the sediment of the treatment solution.Repeated rinses between some steps are used to remove fine particles from the sample and sample checks are used to determine if any step needs to be repeated. Samples processed for AMS dates are processed differently than samples for counting, since no carbon-containing chemicals can be used.At ARS Ltd we have considerable experience of pollen analysis and combining this information with archaeological data to provide a more thorough understanding of the past and answer questions that could not be tackled by archaeological data alone.

Material such as cereal grains and weed seeds (plant macrofossils) are frequently found on archaeological sites.These remains can provide information on woodworking techniques, fuel procurement, fuel use, and past environmental conditions.